Alphaliner’s recent report provides an overview of the traffic of major international ports.
This always highly anticipated ranking highlights major trends in the market. The ranking, which is always eagerly awaited, highlights the major trends in the market. The port of Antwerp is still in first place, followed by Rotterdam, while the German port of Hamburg is in third place among the world’s largest ports.
In 2022, the top 30 global ports saw a modest 1% increase in traffic, reaching a total of 454 million TEUs.
This slight growth is mainly attributed to Asian ports and, to a lesser extent, those in the Middle East.
Excluding traffic from Chinese ports, the top 30 would have actually declined by 2%.
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World ranking of the 20 largest container ports
The 1% growth in TEU traffic in 2022 is considerably lower than that of 2021 (+6.2%), a catch-up year after the Covid-19 crisis. Excluding the Chinese ports, the top 30 would show a decline of 2%.
Chinese ports are consolidating their dominance in maritime container traffic by occupying 4 of the top 5 places in the world ranking and 7 of the top 10. Apart from Tangier Med and Dubai, the majority of ports outside China are in decline, both in Asia (Singapore, Busan, Hong Kong, Port Kelang, Tanjung, etc.) and in Europe (Rotterdam, Antwerp-Bruges and Hamburg). Despite a drop of 5.8%, Rotterdam maintains its number 11 position.
As regards the United States, the West Coast ports have suffered a significant impact from congestion, disrupting activity and leading to redirections to the East Coast.
- Shanghai (China): 47.28 M TEU +0.5% compared to 2021
- Singapore (Singapore): 37.29 M TEU -0.5% compared to 2021
- Ningbo-Zhoushan (China): 33.36 M TEU -6.8% compared to 2021
- Shenzhen (China): 30.04 M TEU +4.3% compared to 2021
- Qingdao (China): 25.66 M TEU +7.6% compared to 2021
- Guangzhou (China): 24.60 M TEU +1.7% compared to 2021
- Busan (South Korea) 22.07 M TEU -2.9% compared to 2021
- Tianjin (China): 21.03 M TEU +3.7% compared to 2021
- Los Angeles-Long Beach (United States): 19.04 M TEU -5.3% compared with 2021
- Hong Kong (China): 16.64 M TEU -7.0% compared to 2021
- Rotterdam (Netherlands): 14.46 M TEU -5.8% compared to 2021
- Jebel Ali (UAE): 13.97 M TEU +1.6% compared to 2021
- Antwerp-Bruges (Belgium): 13.50 TEU -5.5% compared to 2021
- Port Kelang (Malaysia): 13.22 -3.8% compared to 2021
- Xiamen (China): 12.42 TEU +3.1% compared to 2021
- Tanjung Pelepas (Malaysia): 10.51 M TEU -6.5% compared to 2021
- New York (United States): 9.49 M TEU +5.3% compared with 2021
- Kaohsiung (Taiwan): 9.49 M TEU -3.9% compared to 2021
- Laem Chabang (Thailand): 8.74 M TEU +2.5% compared to 2021
- Hamburg (Germany): 8.35 M TEU -5.4% compared with 2021
Ranking of the 10 largest European ports
There are widespread declines in volume in many other European ports. Rotterdam is ahead of its Belgian neighbor Antwerp, now merged with Zeebrugge, and the German port of Hamburg. The three main European ports, Rotterdam, Antwerp-Bruges and Hamburg, have thus lost ground, with indicative volumes down by 5.8%, 5.5% and 5.4% respectively. But the ports of the northern range continue to dominate the market, occupying the top three positions in particular. The Top 3 represent around 56% of the total traffic in the ranking.
- Antwerp (Belgium): 13.50 M TEU -5.5% compared to 2021
- Rotterdam (Netherlands): 14.46 M TEU -5.8% compared to 2021
- Hamburg (Germany): 8.35 M TEU -5.4% compared to 2021
- Valencia (Spain): 5.05 M TEU -10.9% compared to 2021
- Algeciras (Spain): 4.76 M TEU -0.8% compared to 2021
- Bremen (Germany): 4.61 M TEU -8.8% compared with 2021
- Piraeus (Greece): 4.35 M TEU -7.3% compared with 2021
- Barcelona (Spain): 3.52 M TEU -0.3% compared to 2021
- Gioia Tauro (Italy): 3.38 M TEU +7.1% compared to 2021
- Haropa (France): 3.10 M TEU +0% compared to 2021
Ranking of the 10 largest Chinese ports
Despite COVID-19 restrictions, volumes at China’s top 10 ports increased by 4.1% to a new record of 222 million TEUs during the year, although this marks slower growth than the previous year (6.2% in 2021). The overall traffic growth could be attributed to the fact that at the beginning of the year, the Chinese economy was still showing favorable dynamics.
- Shanghai: 47.28 M TEU +0.5% compared to 2021
- Ningbo-Zhoushan: 33.36 M TEU -6.8% compared to 2021
- Shenzhen: 30.04 M TEU +4.3% compared to 2021
- Qingdao: 5.66 M TEU +7.6% compared to 2021
- Guangzhou: 24.60 M TEU +1.7% compared to 2021
- Tianjin: 21.03 M TEU +3.7% compared to 2021
- Xiamen: 12.42 M TEU +3.1% compared to 2021
- Beibu Gulf (Port of Fangcheng, Qinzhou and Beihai): 7.02 M TEU +16-.8% compared to 2021
- Rizhao: 5.80 M TEU +10.7% compared to 2021
- Lianyungang: 5.57 M TEU +9.5% compared to 2021
Ranking of the 10 largest American ports
In the U.S., the East Coast-leading port complexes of New York-New Jersey and Savannah continue to increase their market share against Los Angeles-Long Beach, taking advantage of the Panama Canal expansion. Among the top 30 ports, these two East Coast ports recorded the largest increase over 2019, the baseline year prior to the global pandemic: a 28 percent increase for Savannah and 27 percent for New York. However, combining the results for Los Angeles and Long Beach, the California port complex remains the top U.S. gateway by far.
- Los Angeles: 9.91 M TEU -7.2% compared to 2021
- New York: 9.49 M TEU 5.7% compared to 2021
- Long Beach: 9.13 TEU -2.7% compared to 2021
- Savannah: 5.89 M TEU +5% compared to 2021
- Houston: 3.97 M TEU +14.1% compared to 2021
- Norfolk: 3.70 M TEU +5.1% compared to 2021
- Seattle and Tacoma: 3.38 M TEU -9.4% compared to 2021
- Charleston: 2.79 M TEU +1.5% compared to 2021
- Oakland: 2.33 M TEU -4.5% compared to 2021
- Miami: 1.2 M TEU in 2021 (Data not consolidated for 2022)
Definition of the unit of measurement TEU
TEU is an acronym for “Equivalent Twenty-Foot Unit”. It is a standard unit of measurement used to express the transport capacity of maritime containers. One TEU represents a 20-foot container, which is used as the basis for calculating the volume of cargo carried by container ships.
Alphaliner (Top 20), Hackett Associates, National Retail Federation, Cosco, Upply, lemarin